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BRUNEI
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Map of Brunei
 

 
Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Environment—current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

 
People

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Population: 315,292 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 53,219; female 50,906)
15-64 years: 63% (male 103,949; female 93,370)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,569; female 6,279) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.21 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.69 years
male: 70.17 years
female: 73.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular—daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note—the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note—the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the sultan; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity Party (the first legal political party and now banned), Mohamad HATTA bin Maji Zainal Abidin, secretary general; Brunei Peoples Party (banned), Sheik A. M. AZAHARI, leader; Brunei National Democratic Party or BNDP (deregistered), Haji Abdul LATIF bin Abdul Hamad, president

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP 96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$5.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$18,000 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 144,000 (1995 est.); note—includes foreign workers and military personnel
by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, other 6% (1986 est.)
note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768 million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 646,000 kW (1997 est.)

Electricity—production: 1.26 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 4,311 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo

Exports:
total value: $2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: ASEAN 31%, Japan 27%, South Korea 26%, UK, Taiwan (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $2.65 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994 est.)

Debt—external: $0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1—1.7533 (January 1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993); note—the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: 90,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 284,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 173,000 (1995 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,150 km
paved: 399 km
unpaved: 751 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

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