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Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment—current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography—note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada border


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Population: 30,675,398 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,106,331; female 2,961,328)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,457,686; female 10,328,953)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,619,704; female 2,201,396) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.16 years
male: 75.86 years
female: 82.63 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other 35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%


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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: federation with parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
note: the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999; the eastern section, which will be self-governing, will be renamed Nunavut, the west is as yet unnamed

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons—last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held by NA June 2002)
election results: percent of votes by party—Liberal Party 38%, Reform Party 19%, Tories 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 11%, other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155, Reform Party 60, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21, Progressive Conservative Party 20, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Jean CHAREST]

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon GIFFIN
embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band


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Economy—overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment—especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces—and a large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the federation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$658 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$21,700 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 31%
services: 66% (1997)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 1.8% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 15.3 million (1997)
by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 16%, agriculture 3%, construction 5%, other 1% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (December 1997)

revenues: $106.5 billion
expenditures: $117.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (1996)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 113.645 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 532.64 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 17,448 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

total value: $208.6 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

total value: $194.4 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Debt—external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995)
note: ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1—1.4408 (January 1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April—31 March


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Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations—5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)


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total: 72,963 km; note—there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge: 72,963 km 1.435-m gauge (183 km electrified) (1996)

total: 1.021 million km
paved: 358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 662,629 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,267 GRT/902,923 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 16, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,393 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 515
over 3,047 m: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 149
914 to 1,523 m: 240
under 914 m: 93 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 878
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 350
under 914 m: 455 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 17 (1997 est.)




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