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Map of Croatia
 

 
Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 56,538 sq km
land: 56,410 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment—current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geography—note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

 
People

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Population: 4,671,584 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 411,022; female 389,354)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,591,716; female 1,592,485)
65 years and over: 15% (male 262,471; female 424,536) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.75 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 77.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

National capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija—singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since 7 November 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October 1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK (since November 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of vote—Franjo TUDJMAN 61%, Zdravko TOMAC 21%, Vlado GOTOVAC 18%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House of Districts or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats—63 directly elected by popular vote, 5 presidentially appointed; members serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Districts—last held 13 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); House of Representatives—last held 29 October 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Districts—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2, SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note—in some districts certain parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of Representatives—percent of vote by party - HDZ 45.23%, HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats by party—HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Franjo TUDJMAN, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND [Stjepan MESIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Vlado GOTOVAC, president]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Party of Rights 1861 or HSP 1861 [Dobrislav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasants' Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Radimir CACIC, president]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan DJUKIC]; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvije DEGEN]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA, president]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party or SBHS [Damir JURIC]; Primorje Gorski Kotar Alliance; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Semso TANKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00
FAX: [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform efforts—partially macroeconomic stabilization policies—and it has normalized relations with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$22.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$4,500 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 24%
services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 3.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.444 million (1995)
by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government 19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 15.9% (yearend 1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.3 billion
expenditures: $6.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $78.5 million (1997 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1995)

Electricity—capacity: 3.593 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 7.15 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 2,315 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock breeding, dairy farming

Exports:
total value: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7% (1993)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $9.1 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
partners: Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt—external: $5.904 billion (October 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia $100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1—6.369 (January 1998), 6.101 (1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (769 km electrified)
note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by territorial dispute (1997)

Highways:
total: 27,247 km
paved: 22,206 km (including 318 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,041 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992); note—under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total: 72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 793,114 GRT/1,187,908 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 31, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 5, container 5, liquefied gas 1, multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 2, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 5
note: Croatia owns an additional 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,057,523 DWT operating under the registries of Malta, Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997 est.)

Airports: 71 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 42 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

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