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CYPRUS
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Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 9,250 sq km (note—3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area—comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment—current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifier; increased salinization in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

 
People

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Population: 748,982 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 94,006; female 89,256)
15-64 years: 65% (male 245,739; female 241,935)
65 years and over: 10% (male 33,989; female 44,057) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.69% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.93 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.79 years
male: 74.62 years
female: 79.07 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91% (1987 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish intervention in July 1974 following a Greek junta-based coup attempt, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

National capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish Cypriot area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note—Turkish Cypriot area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results: Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of vote—Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000); results—Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral—Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats of which only 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May 2001); Turkish area: last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held December 1998)
election results: Greek area: House of Representatives—percent of vote by party—DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK 8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.1%; seats by party—DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic—percent of vote by party—UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats by party—UBP (conservative) 17, DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5; as of 13 May 1997, seats by party—UBP 18, DP 13, CTP 13, TKP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme Council of Judicature
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Democratic Party or DIKO [Spyros KYPRIANOU]; United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement [Alexis GALANOS]; United Democrats Movement or EDI (formerly Free Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; New Horizons [Nikolaos KOUTSOU, secretary general]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; Turkish Cypriot area: National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]; Unity and Sovereignty Party or BEP [Arif Salih KIRDAG]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enuer EMIN]; New Cyprus Party of YKP [Alpay DURDURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andros A. NIKOLAIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet ERDENGIZ, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836
telephone: [357] (2) 776400
FAX: [357] (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous, but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 22% to GDP and employs 25% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 73% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political instability on the island and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. The Turkish Cypriot economy has about one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector. In January 1997, Turkey signed a $250 million economic cooperation accord with the Turkish Cypriot area to support tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$11.19 billion (Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity—$9.75 billion; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $1.44 billion) (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 2.4% (Greek Cypriot area: 2.5%; Turkish Cypriot area: 1.7%) (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$13,500 (Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity—$15,000; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity—$8,000) (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.4%; industry 22.4%; services 73.2% (1996); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture 10%; industry 24.6%; services 65.4% (1995)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: Greek Cypriot area: 3.5% (1997 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 87.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: Greek Cypriot area: 299,700
by occupation: services 62%, industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995)
total: Turkish Cypriot area: 76,500 (1996)
by occupation: services 66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3% (1997 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 6.4% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: Greek Cypriot area—$2.9 billion, Turkish Cypriot area—$171 million
expenditures: Greek Cypriot area—$3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $345 million, Turkish Cypriot area—$306 million, including capital expenditures of $56.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: -4% (1996); Turkish Cypriot area: 5.1% (1995)

Electricity—capacity: 666,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 2.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 3,530 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports:
total value: Greek Cypriot area: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners: Russia 19.1%, Bulgaria 16.4%, UK 11.3%, Greece 6.3%, Germany 4.8%
total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $70.5 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles
partners: Turkey 48.2%, UK 21.3%, other EU 13.7%

Imports:
total value: Greek Cypriot area: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
partners: US 17.8%, UK 11.9%, Italy 9.7%, Germany 7.5%, Greece 7.6%
total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $318.4 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
partners: Turkey 55.3%, UK 13.8%, other EU 11.6%

Debt—external: Greek Cypriot area: $1.56 billion (1997)

Economic aid: Greek Cypriot area: recipient—$187 million (1990-94) in grants; Turkish Cypriot area: recipient—$700 million (1990-97) from Turkey in grants and loans that are usually forgiven

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (£C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$—0.5326 (January 1998), 0.5135 (1997), 0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1—187,477 (November 1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: Greek Cypriot area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 80,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations—3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 4, FM 36, shortwave 1, Turkish Cypriot area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 130,000 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 8 (repeaters 34); Turkish Cypriot area: 2

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 90,000 (1996 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,415 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km
paved: Greek Cypriot area: 5,947 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km
unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,468 km (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
total: 1,533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,330,565 GRT/37,272,825 DWT
ships by type: bulk 471, cargo 568, chemical tanker 23, combination bulk 48, combination ore/oil 12, container 139, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 142, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 54, roll-on/roll-off cargo 42, short-sea passenger 16, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 45 countries among which are Greece 673, Germany 159, Russia 57, Latvia 28, Netherlands 25, Japan 24, Cuba 22, China 18, Belgium 17, and Poland 14; Cyprus owns 78 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,623,560 DWT that operate under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Philippines (1997 est.)

Airports: 15 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

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