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HUNGARY
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Map of Hungary
 

 
Geography

 Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,009 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use:
arable land: 51%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment—current issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments, estimated by the Government of Hungary at $4 billion over six years; the 1997 budget allocated $9.7 million for this purpose; the 1998 budget allocated $11.3 million; the Central Environmental Fund, which collects monies from product charges, environmental fines, and mining taxes, provided approximately $76.2 million in 1997 and is expected to provide $109.5 million in 1998

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography—note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

 
People

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Population: 10,208,127 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 915,412; female 872,706)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,413,170; female 3,533,085)
65 years and over: 14% (male 550,974; female 922,780) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.23% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.46 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.83 years
male: 66.46 years
female: 75.44 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Data code: HU

Government type: republic

National capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular—megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the coronation of King Stephen in 1000 AD)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president since 2 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Arpad GONCZ elected president; a total of 335 votes were cast by the National Assembly, Arpad GONCZ received 259; Gyula HORN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held 10 and 24 May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round)—MSzP 33.0%, SzDSz 19.8%, MDF 11.7%, FKgP 8.9%, KDNP 7.1%, FiDeSz 7.0%, MMP 3.2%, MIEP 1.6%, other 7.7%; seats by party - MSzP 209, SzDSz 70, MDF 37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22, FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the National Assembly for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Sandor LEZSAK, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKgP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Gyula HORN, president]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FiDeSz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Ivan PETO, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Ivan SZABO, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
note: the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party or MSzMP renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP in October 1989; the MDNP was formed in March 1996 by breakaway members of the Hungarian Democratic Forum; the KDNP lost its parliamentary faction status in July 1997 after a party split reduced its representation below the minimum 15 required

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. TUFO
embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, 1054 Budapest
mailing address: Pouch: American Embassy Budapest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 267-4400, 269-9331 (after hours), 269-9339 (after hours)
FAX: [36] (1) 269-9326

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: Hungary has consolidated its March 1995 stabilization program and undergone enough restructuring to become an established market economy. The country appears to have entered a period of sustainable growth, gradually falling inflation, and stable external balances. The government's main economic priorities are to complete structural reforms, particularly the implementation of the 1997 pension reform act (the first in the region), taxation reform, and planning for comprehensive health care, local government finance reform, and the reform of education at all levels. Foreign investment has totaled more than $17 billion through 1997. In recognition of Hungary's improved macro-economic situation, all major credit-rating agencies listed the country's foreign currency debt issuances as investment grade in 1996. The current IMF stand-by arrangement expired in February 1998, and Budapest and the IMF agree that there is no need to renew it. The OECD welcomed Hungary as a member in May 1996, and in December 1997 the EU invited Hungary to begin the accession process. Forecasters expect 4%-5% growth in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$73.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$7,400 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.2%
industry: 31.8%
services: 61% (1995)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 18% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.5 million (1996)
by occupation: services 65.0%, industry 26.7%, agriculture 8.3 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $12.1 billion
expenditures: $13.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 6.979 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 32.92 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 3,423 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $16 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 36.6%, other manufactures 40.6%, agriculture and food products 15.1%, raw materials 4.4%, fuels and electricity 3.3% (1996)
partners: EU 62.8% (Germany 29%, Austria 10.6%, Italy 8.0%), FSU 8.6% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $18.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 36.5%, other manufactures 43.7%, fuels and electricity 11.8%, agricultural and food products 4.4%, raw materials 3.6% (1996)
partners: EU 59.8% (Germany 23.6%, Austria 9.5%, Italy 8.1%), FSU 14.9% (1996)

Debt—external: $27.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints per US$1—206.260 (January 1998), 186.789 (1997), 152.647 (1996), 125.681 (1995),105.160 (1994), 91.933 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: 2.16 million (1 January 1996)—there are 21.1 per 100 inhabitants, 54.1 per 100 households; mobile telephone services are used by 267,000 subscribers

Telephone system: 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; the average waiting time for telephones is expected to drop to one year by the end of 1997 (down from over 10 years in the early 1990's); note—the former state-owned telecommunications firm MATAV—now privatized and managed by a US/German consortium—has ambitious plans to upgrade the inadequate system, including a contract with the German firm Siemens and the Swedish firm Ericsson to provide 600,000 new phone lines during 1996-98
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations—1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 32, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (Russian repeaters 8)

Televisions: 4.38 million (1993 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways:
total: 7,606 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,394 km 1.435-m gauge (2,207 km electrified; 1,236 km double track)
narrow gauge: 176 km 0.760-m gauge (1996)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway between Gyor, Sopron, Ebenfurt (Gyor-Sopron-Ebenfurti Vasut Rt) a distance of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria

Highways:
total: 158,633 km
paved: 68,370 km (including 420 km of expressways)
unpaved: 90,263 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine:
total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,522 GRT/47,792 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 25 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

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