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Map of Mongolia


Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

total: 1.565 million sq km
land: 1.565 million sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 80%
forests and woodland: 9%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment—current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia


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Population: 2,578,530 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 483,795; female 468,700)
15-64 years: 59% (male 764,665; female 764,825)
65 years and over: 4% (male 41,488; female 55,057) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.56 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.19 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 66.34 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.46 years
male: 59.4 years
female: 63.61 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of communist regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male: 88.6%
female: 77.2% (1988 est.)


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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Government type: republic

National capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular—aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular—hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Tsahiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 23 April 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 18 May 1997 (next to be held summer 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI elected president; percent of vote—Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 60.8%, Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) 29.8%, Jambyn GOMBOJAV (MUTP) 6.6%; following a vote of no-confidence against former Prime Minister Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN, Tsahiagiyn ELBEGDORJ was elected prime minister on 23 April 1998 by a vote in the State Great Hural of 61 to 6 (nine members abstained)

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party—DUC 66%, MPRP 33%, MCP 1%; seats by party - DUC 50 (MNDP 34, MSDP 13, independents 3), MPRP 25, MCP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), N. ENKHBAYAR, general secretary; Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN, general secretary (includes Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP, T. ELBEGDORJ, chairman; Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ, chairman; Green Party, NYAM; and Mongolian Democratic Party of Believers or MDPB, leader NA); Mongolian Conservative Party (MCP), JARGALSAIHAN; Democratic Power Coalition, D. BYAMBASUREN, chairman (includes Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP, BYAMBASUREN, chairman, and Mongolian People's Party or MPP, leader NA); Mongolian National Solidarity Party (MNSP), leader NA; Bourgeois Party/Capitalist Party, VARGALSAIHAN, chairman; United Heritage Party (UHP), B. JAMTSAI (includes United Party of Herdsman and Farmers, leader NA; Independence Party, leader NA; Traditional United Conservative Party, leader NA; and Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party, leader NA); Workers' Party, leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse F. LA PORTA
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (1) 329095
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo"—a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


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Economy—overview: The government has embraced free-market economics, freezing spending, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade. Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land, however, have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years, extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP, but disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. The Mongolian leadership has been soliciting support from foreign donors, who pledged some $250 million in aid in October 1997. Economic growth picked up in 1997 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$5.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$2,200 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 32%
services: 34% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 17.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)
by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 15% (1997 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 901,000 kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 3.15 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 1,303 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

total value: $418 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: Russia 21%, China 18% (1996)

total value: $443.4 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: Russia 34%, China 15% (1996)

Debt—external: $500 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA $250 million (1998 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1—812.09 (December 1997), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996), 448.61 (1995), 412.72 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 89,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station—1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 220,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters 18)

Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)


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total: 1,928 km
broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)

total: 46,470 km
paved: 3,730 km
unpaved: 42,740 km (1997 est.)
note: much of the unpaved rural road system consists of rough cross-country tracks

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)





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