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Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 923,770 sq km
land: 910,770 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment—current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

 
People

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Population: 110,532,242 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 24,871,855; female 24,661,134)
15-64 years: 52% (male 29,420,428; female 28,343,567)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,627,452; female 1,607,806) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.95 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.74 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.55 years
male: 52.68 years
female: 54.45 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, Ijaw

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.1%
male: 67.3%
female: 47.3% (1995 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Data code: NI

Government type: military government; Nigeria has been ruled by one military regime after another since 31 December 1983; on 1 October 1995, the present military government announced it will turn power over to democratically elected civilian authorities on 1 October 1998

National capital: Abuja
note: on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion of facilities in Abuja

Administrative divisions: 30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Federal Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
note: the government has announced the creation of six additional states named Bayelsa, Ebonyi, Ekiti, Gombe, Nassarawa, and Zamfara as part of the process of transition to a civilian government

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: 1979 constitution still partially in force; plan for 1989 constitution to take effect in 1993 was not implemented; draft 1995 constitution has not been published; the military government rules by decree

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR (since 9 June 1998); note—the chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR (since 9 June 1998); note—the chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council (chaired by the Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council)
elections: none; on 9 June 1998, the Provisional Ruling Council appointed Gen. Abdulsalam ABUBAKAR as their new Chairman to replace Gen. Sani ABACHA who died in office; Gen. ABUBAKAR immediately pledged a program to return the government to civilian rule as promised by Gen. ABACHA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly, comprising a 109-member Senate and a 360-member House of Representatives
note: the National Assembly was suspended after the military takeover of 17 November 1993; in October 1995, the government announced a three-year program for transition to civilian rule; elections to the National Assembly took place 25 April 1998 for a term starting 1 October 1998; the election was substantially boycotted by the opposition and the legislature is unlikely to be representative of the electorate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council; Federal Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee

Political parties and leaders: political party system, which was suspended after the military takeover of 17 November 1993, was reestablished by the Provisional Ruling Council on 30 September 1996 with the registration of five of 15 competing political parties; these were the United Nigeria Congress Party or UNCP [Isa MOHAMMED, chairman]; National Center Party of Nigeria or NCPN [Magaji ABDULLAHI, chairman]; Grassroots Democratic Movement or GDM [Alhaji Gambo LAWAN, chairman]; Committee for National Consensus or CNC [Barnabas GEMADE, chairman]; Democratic Party of Nigeria or DPN [Saleh HASSAN, chairman]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C (suspended), CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wakili Hassan ADAMU
chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William TWADDELL
embassy: 2 Louis Farrakhan Crescent, Lagos
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (1) 261-0097
FAX: [234] (1) 261-0257

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic management. Nigeria's unpopular military rulers have failed to make significant progress in diversifying the economy away from overdependence on the capital intensive oil sector which provides 30% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary revenues. The government's resistance to initiating greater transparency and accountability in managing the country's multibillion dollar oil earnings continues to limit economic growth and prevent an agreement with the IMF and bilateral creditors on debt relief. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Agricultural production in 1996 suffered from severe shortages of fertilizer, and production of fertilizer fell even further in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$132.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$1,300 (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 39%
industry: 31%
services: 30% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 12% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 42.844 million
by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 15%

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.9 billion (1998 est.)
expenditures: $13.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1998 est.)

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1996)

Electricity—capacity: 5.881 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 16.21 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 152 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forest resources extensively exploited

Exports:
total value: $15 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners: US 40%, EU 21% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $8 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food and animals
partners: EU 50%, US 12%, Japan 7%

Debt—external: $34 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1—21.886 (December 1997), 21.886 (1997), 21.895 (1995), 21.996 (1994), 22.065 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: 492,204 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in progress
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and 20 domestic satellite earth stations carry intercity traffic
international: satellite earth stations—3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 1 coaxial submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 20 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.8 million (1992 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways:
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 32,105 km
paved: 26,005 km (including 2,044 km of expressways)
unpaved: 6,100 km (1994 est.)
note: many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled; because of poor maintenance, much of the road system is barely useable

Waterways: 8,575 km consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km

Ports and harbors: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine:
total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 379,210 GRT/643,851 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 14, chemical tanker 3, oil tanker 20, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 72 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 20 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

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