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Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment—current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography—note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

 
People

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Population: 22,395,848 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 2,169,581; female 2,078,515)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,571,619; female 7,668,689)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,213,406; female 1,694,038) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.32% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.33 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.62 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.83 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.47 years
male: 66.67 years
female: 74.47 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95% (1992 est.)

 
Government

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Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Data code: RO

Government type: republic

National capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular—judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Radu VASILE (since 17 April 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote—Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion ILIESCU 45.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Deputies—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Senate—percent of vote by party—CDR 30.7%, PDSR 23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats by party—CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of Deputies—percent of vote by party—CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD 12.9%, UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party—CDR 122, PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the president on recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Sergiu CUNESCU]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie VERDET]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Victor SURDU]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]
note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to gain representation in the most recent election

Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
chancery : 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

 
Economy

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Economy—overview: Romania, one of the poorer countries in the region, is continuing its difficult transition to a market-based economy. After the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91, Romania was left with an obsolete industrial base and a pattern of industrial capacity wholly unsuited to its needs. For the next few years the country lagged behind most of its neighbors in the pace of restructuring. Then in February 1997, Romania embarked on a comprehensive macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform program. The domestic foreign exchange market was freed, and controls on current-account convertibility were removed in October. Restructuring programs include liquidating large energy-intensive industries, and agricultural and financial sector reform. The private sector share of GDP rose to an estimated 58% in 1997, however, this total includes firms with government-held minority stakes. Although progress has been made in privatizing small- and medium-sized firms, delays in structural reforms—including the postponement of sales of large state-owned enterprises - threaten plans to revive GDP growth. In 1998, GDP will likely be unchanged; and inflation is projected to fall to 45% from 151% in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$114.2 billion (1997 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: -6.6% (1997 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$5,300 (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 36%
services: 45% (1996)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 151% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 10.1 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry 28.6%, agriculture 34.4%, trade 10.4%, construction 5.1%, other 21.5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10 billion
expenditures: $11.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.3 billion (1997 est.)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and refining

Industrial production growth rate: -5.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity—capacity: 22.06 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 55.19 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 2,412 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; milk, eggs, meat

Exports:
total value: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: textiles and footwear 27.5%, metals and metal products 16.2%, mineral products 9.0%, chemicals 11.2%, other 36.1% (1996)
partners: Germany 18.1%, Italy 16.7%, France 5.6%, Turkey 5%, Netherlands 4.2%, China 3.0% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: fuels and minerals 24%, machinery and transport equipment 25%, food and agricultural goods 7.6%, chemicals 12.5%, other 30.9% (1996)
partners: Germany 17.1%, Italy 15.6%, Russia 12.6%, France 5.0%, US 3.8%, Egypt 3.8% (1996)

Debt—external: $10 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1—8,293.40 (January 1998), 7,167.94 (1997), 3,084.22 (1996), 2,033.28 (1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

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Telephones: 2.6 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor service; 89% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is microwave radio relay; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990 est.)
international: satellite earth station—1 Intelsat; new digital international direct-dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993 est.)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: in 1995, 135 local radio stations were registered

Radios: 4.64 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 436 cable TV stations, 66 local TV stations

Televisions: 4.58 million (1992 est.)

 
Transportation

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Railways:
total: 11,365 km
broad gauge: 45 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,893 km 1.435-m gauge (3,723 km electrified; 3,060 km double track)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 153,170 km
paved: 78,117 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 75,053 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 227 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,332,117 GRT/3,464,613 DWT
ships by type: bulk 39, cargo 160, container 2, oil tanker 12, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 10
note: Romania owns an additional 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 827,625 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus, Liberia, and Malta (1997 est.)

Airports: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

 

 

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