Photoatlas Free interactive atlas with photos, facts, links and maps from around the world

  Flag of Trinidad  Information on Trinidad and Tobago
 
MAIN MENU
Country Listing
Sitemap
Worldmap
Submit your own photo
Chat around the globe
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Pictures
Country Facts
Map of Trinidad
 

 
Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 5,130 sq km
land: 5,130 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Environment—current issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

 
People

[Top of Page]

Population: 1,116,595 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 159,353; female 152,898)
15-64 years: 65% (male 375,889; female 347,115)
65 years and over: 7% (male 36,627; female 44,713) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.27% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 14.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -19.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.84 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.51 years
male: 68.06 years
female: 73.03 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic groups: black 40%, East Indian (a local term—primarily immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 3.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

Languages: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 98.8%
female: 97% (1995 est.)

 
Government

[Top of Page]

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Data code: TD

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Constitution: 1 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 19 March 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Basdeo PANDAY (since 9 November 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college that consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held NA February 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed from among the members of Parliament; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives is usually appointed prime minister
election results: Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON elected president; percent of electoral college vote—69%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five years) and a House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives—last held 6 November 1995 (next to be held by December 2000)
election results: House of Representatives—percent of vote—PNM 52%, UNC 42.2%, NAR 5.2%; seats by party—PNM 15, UNC 19, NAR 1, independent 1; note—the UNC formed a coalition with the NAR
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 15 members serving four-year terms

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Nizam MOHAMMED; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH; National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA; National Development Party (NDP), Carson CHARLES; Movement for Unity and Progress (MUP), Hulsie BHAGGAN

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Michael A. ARNEAUD
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. SHUMAKER, III
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX: [1] (809) 628-5462

Flag description: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

 
Economy

[Top of Page]

Economy—overview: Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Successful economic reforms were implemented in 1995, and foreign investment and trade are flourishing. Unemployment - a main cause of the country's socio-economic problems—is high, but has decreased to its lowest point in five years. The country enjoys a healthy trade surplus, yet its heavy dependence on oil and petrochemical prices makes its trade balance vulnerable to sudden shifts. Tourism is a major foreign exchange earner, with 260,000 arrivals in 1995, 80% from Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$13.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.1% (1996 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$10,400 (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 45%
services: 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate—consumer price index: 3.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 404,500
by occupation: construction and utilities 13%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, agriculture 11%, services 62% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.1% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $243 million (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (1995)

Electricity—capacity: 1.15 million kW (1995)

Electricity—production: 3.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity—consumption per capita: 3,068 kWh (1995)

Agriculture—products: cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners: US 48%, Caricom countries 15%, Latin America 9%, EU 5% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
partners: US 48%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, Germany, Canada (1995)

Debt—external: $1.9 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1—6.2840 (January 1998), 6.2503 (1997), 6.0051 (1996), 5.9478 (1995), 5.9249 (1994), 5.3511 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

 
Communications

[Top of Page]

Telephones: 170,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0
note: there were a total of 10 radio stations in 1995

Radios: 700,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

 
Transportation

[Top of Page]

Railways:
note: minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; railway service was discontinued in 1968

Highways:
total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km

Ports and harbors: Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,336 GRT/2,567 DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

  Disclaimer

 

 

Click Here To Order National Geographic: The Photographs